My Bug Bounty Journey and My First Critical Bug — Time Based Blind SQL Injection
Hello everyone, I am Marx Chryz and I am new to bug bounty hunting even though I do web penetration testing for more than a year.
I only thought about bug bounty hunting last May but it is only a month after that, that I tried to study. It is hard to start because I don’t have any motivation to learn and I was shocked because there are so much things that I need to know. There are lot’s of times I doubt myself because I think I’m not better than anyone.
Until something motivated me. It is a talk from RootCon Recovery Mode Last October that pushed me to study more. I was inspired when a speaker said about “Cleartext Transmission of Sensitive Data”. It is a vulnerability that lies when a form that handles sensitive data such as email and password, is submitted via an insecure connection or http. It is a very low hanging bug but I heard only about that in RootCon. After hearing that, I was like “Hey I shouldn’t have doubted myself, It is not I am weak that I can’t find bugs, but it is just I don’t know what types of bug exist”. From there, I started on reading Bugcrowd’s VRT to be able to familiarize myself about bugs, and I read also the Web Application Hacker’s Handbook by Dafydd Stuttard and Web Hacking 101 by Peter Yaworski. I also built a habit of reading writeups everyday to learn more about others experiences.
In a span of few weeks, I learned more than what I learned when I am not motivated. Aside from reading, I watched several videos of Stök, Farah Hawa, and other bug bounty hunters including the talks of Jason Haddix, Peter Yaworski, and James Kettle.
I started on looking for low hanging bugs such as bugs related to session and non-expiring password reset tokens, and luckily I managed to gain $100 bounty on that and that was my first bounty! From there, I decided to level up what I hunt so I started looking for XSS and I also managed to find one! The XSS vulnerability occurs because a Content-Type of text/html is returned on a json endpoint. But sadly, It turned out as P5, because only admins can exploit that vulnerability (see more).
Out of frustration that my XSS is P5 instead of P3, I tried to hunt another XSS on the same program. I did some subdomain enumeration and found a subdomain that I didn’t tested before, so why not give it a try? There’s a login page so I created an account to signup.
Upon browsing the site, I noticed that there’s a search button so I tried doing XSS there but it failed. I didn’t tried for SQL Injection because I thought that would be pretty dumb to do, I guess the developers manage to sanitize that. But something caught my eye, there is a sort button when you click the titles (Referral ID, Type, etc…), that may be possible to be SQL Injection vulnerable!
After clicking it, I was redirected to the URL ?order=type&ordering=ASC&search= Hey! the ASC value seems familiar, is the backend using something like “SELECT * FROM referrals ORDER BY type ASC”? Out of curiosity, I did a typical way to test for SQLi, the single quote (‘). So I changed order=type to order=type’ and to my surprise, the server responsed with an Error 500! I am one step towards SQL Injection! I am just looking for XSS and found a possible SQLi vulnerability.
All I need to do is give a valid proof of concept so I can do a write up. I thought of doing DIOS (dump in one shot for union based SQL Injection). I tried for hours but I can’t do union select 1,2,3,4,5…18--+- All I can do is order by 18. While this proves the existence of SQL Injection, this isn’t enough to be a risk. I need to demonstrate that I got something from their database.
Upon searching and trying various payloads on my localhost, I realized that UNION SELECT is not possible for queries after the ORDER BY clause since they’re query must be something like “SELECT * FROM referrals ORDER BY type ASC”. So union based SQL Injection is not possible, what if I try something like error based or time based? After trying Error Based, I realized I can’t do that as well because the site only returns a blank page with status of 500, there are no error messages, I can’t do error based. The last resort for me is time based SQL Injection.
I tried some payloads for MySQL, MSSQL, and PostgreSQL but nothing worked, even though the payloads are valid when I tried simulating it on my localhost’s phpmyadmin. None of the most basic payload even worked:
; WAITFOR DELAY ‘00:00:10’;--
I thought, maybe theres a WAF. What if my payloads are blocked. So I tried various WAF bypass techniques but yeah, none worked. I thought, what if the functions such as sleep() and benchmark() are disabled? How could I do time based without this functions for time based?
Since It appears I can’t use those functions, I tried doing boolean based blind with the payload if(1=1,1,(select 1 union select 2)). In simple terms, since the page returns error 500 when there’s an SQL error, if 1=1, then the server must return success 200. But if I used the payload if(1>2,1,(select 1 union select 2)), the server must reply error 500. This happens because my theoretical query is “SELECT * FROM referrals ORDER BY (select 1 union select 2) ASC” and that throws a “subquery returns more than 1 row” based on how I try on my localhost. But guess what? Nothing worked. it appears that the =,< and > is blocked.
I almost gave up at this moment. Then I thought of going back to time based blind because I realized that “Hey, Im trying too many payloads (postgre, mysql, mssql) what if I try to get the database version to lessen my scope of payloads?” But how am I gonna get the db version without time based SQL Injection?
I remembered something, SQL/*!50000 Comments*/. The number 50000 specifies tells the SQL Server to execute the payload inside the comment if the version of SQL is at least 5.00.00. In theory, when I have a payload of /*!50000someInvalidSQLSyntax*/, the page must response with error 500 if the SQL version is at least 5.0.0, if it’s <5.0.0, it must return a normal page.
Let’s bruteforce the version using Burp Intruder. After doing a bruteforce per digit
/*!50731someInvalidSQLSyntax*/ returns an error 500
/*!50732someInvalidSQLSyntax*/ returns a success 200
This means that the version is 5.7.31. Hey, this is a MySQL Server. So going back to the payloads above, I must only try the sleep() and benchmark() since it works on MySQL 5.7.31.
After having the database version enumerated, I felt like I have made some progress after hours of trying and googling. After some time again, I’m still stuck. But glad, google comes to help and I found the payload (select*from(select(sleep(10)))a) and BOOM!
IT WORKED!!! And now that the server sleep for 10 seconds, I must sleep also (It’s 5am in the morning and I have class lol)
I was shocked when it finally worked. I tried several hours for this and I’ts very pleasing to the eye seeing my payload work. I was nervous because it was my first critical bug and I know they pay high for crits. So I tried again altering the payload and changing the delay time to prove that the delay is not because of my network provider, I tried another one with delay of 30 seconds. And It still worked.
Finally, I did a report and I passed it to them as fast as I can without sacrificing the quality of report because I won’t get paid if my report is trash and if they can’t replicate my vulnerability.
Nov 23, 2020 — Bug Submitted
Nov 25, 2020 — Bug Fixed
Dec 12, 2020 — Triaged as mid P1-P2 and eligible for $3500 bounty
Dec 17, 2020 — Bounty Received